1.THE HISTORY OF TEA ORIGIN
According to the ancient Chinese legend, for the first time ever the mankind has learned about the benefits of tea leaves during the reign of the Chinese emperor Shen Nung, in 2737-2697 BC.In India the tea plant was cultivated and consumed much later. According to the ancient Indian epos, this period dates back to 750-500 BC. The millennial cultivation culture of tea plantations in China and India helped the mankind at the beginning of the 19thcentury to obtain unique types of the tea tree, the healthy leaf properties of which were used not only for medical purposes, but also as a refreshing tea drink. During this period, Chinese and Indian tea tree species were imported to the Ceylon Island as an experiment. As experienced, the best growing area for the Chinese tea is the highland areas of the island, and the Indian, on the contrary, on the plain areas. As is known, the role of personality in any history is significant and predetermines the development of critical events taking place in it. The names of the three great reformers of the Empire of tea in Sri Lanka have been written with golden letters into the history of the Ceylon tea: one of them has founded it, the other one has developed, and the third one has retained.
The name of Scotch James Taylor is related to the first tea plantations planted in 1867 at the Ceylon Island. Just here he improved the tea leaf collection technique– "two leaves and a bud". Soon Taylor founded the first tea factory on the island. In 1872 he invented a machine for rolling the tea leaf. The highly professional marketing policy implemented by him and, in particular, advertisement of the Ceylon tea on the global market allowed gaining recognition during a short period of time not only by the leading "tea empire “England, but almost by all the European countries, Russia and Asia. The first Taylor’s commercial plantations became the model for the future development of the tea industry: growing-factory-trade. James Taylor needed less than six years to inform the world about a new “Ceylon” miracle. Since that time the industrial era in the history of the Ceylon tea had begun. At the entrance of the Museum of Tea in the ancient city of Kandy his bust was installed with the following inscription: “James Taylor. The father of the Ceylon tea”.
A little bit later Thomas Lipton visited the Ceylon Island, whose name nowadays is a famous trade mark in the world, symbol of the first class tea. During a very short period of time he managed to buy up and revive several tea plantations, and also to establish their own factories on tea processing. Thomas Lipton began to produce finest quality tea that made the common state of Sri Lanka in the powerful tea empire. In 1897 the Queen Victoria made Thomas Lipton a knight.
In the second half of the 20thcenturyMerrill J. Fernando, the founder of the Dilmah Company, improved the quality of the pure Ceylon tea. Merrill introduced the innovative concept of tea “single place origin tea "collected, refined and packed at the place of origin. These days Sri Lanka is one of the world's biggest tea producers. In1972the Ceylon Island was renamed as the state of Sri Lanka, but the old name has not lost its relevance to the present time owing to the famous Ceylon tea. Thus, the history of the Ceylon tea origin is unique inasmuch as the culture brought from outside has become one of the principles of the economic life of the island nation Sri Lanka for many years.
2. POPULARITY OF Gold Ceylon Tea
Harmonious bouquet of a noble flavor and subtle aroma shades of Gold Ceylon Tea have found their lovers all over the world. Popularity of the tea is subject to its inimitable and various flavor, as well as healthy properties, first of all, depending on the climatic conditions, and then a specific character of the growing and cropping process of the tea culture. The hot and humid climate of the Ceylon Island is ideal for cultivation of tea trees and year-round tea collection. Harvestings performed four times a year; the most valuable are the first harvest teas. Centuries-old breeding work on naturally high tea trees yielded positive results: tea trees have become bushes convenient for collection, the young top of which is considered the most quality "golden" tea. Most of the plantations are located in the mountain regions of the Central and Southern part of the country at the altitude of1000to2700 meters above the sea level, namely on the high-mountain slopes gorgeous tea leaves of the best quality grow. The health giving high-mountain Ceylon tea with exquisite flavor and long lasting aromas in great demand in Europe, whereas the lowland plantation teas are popular in the Middle East owing to a harsh flavor and rejuvenating effect. "Ceylon kiss in the cup "is the loving worldwide called name of the tea from the Paradise Island plantations. This is a very high assessment of quality, gratitude and thanks of true connoisseurs. Today tea is the most popular drink in the world. According to the statistics, every second on Earth more than two million cups of tea are consumed! Including the Ceylon tea. Harmony of the gorgeous tea blending of GOLD CEYLON is unique and recognizable. Along with the flavor, aroma and color, an important indicator of the tea popularity are its healthy properties. Originally, over the course of many centuries tea was consumed solely for medical purposes. Today tea is rather a preventive means and has integrated health effects on the organism. Tea regulates physiological processes, withdraws radioactive elements from the body and is rich in many nutrients, which prolong life. According to the scientists estimates tea leaves contain about 300 substances of varying complexity that determine the quality of the tea. Almost all the healthy ingredients in tea are related to the extractive substances, that is, they have the ability to be preserved completely in hot water. The main medical and preventative tea properties are as follows: Tea relieves tiredness, stimulates the metabolism and normalizes activity of the heart, blood vessels and the digestive system.
Tea strengthens immunity owing to vitamin C. The fresh tea leaf contains vitamin C four times as much than the lemon and orange juices do.
Tea produces a rejuvenating effect.
Tea inhibits formation of fat deposits on the inner surface of the blood vessels, thus, reducing the possibility of sclerosis, hypertension and brain clots.
Tea inhibits the aging process of cells, what promotes longevity.
Tea tannin kills many bacteria and therefore prevents angina, stomatitis, and intestinal infections.
Tea contains antioxidants. A number of promising facts, speaking well for the fact that tea (especially green) can protect against some types of cancer.
Tea can be used for prevention of cataracts, since tea contains provitamin A – carotene, important for our sense of vision.
The tea helps to increase skin elasticity, makes it flexible due to the tannin content vitamins B, P and K.
Tea contains almost no calories.
Tea has a wide range of vitamins and trace elements.
Tea contains a lot of fluorine. That is why it is a means of teeth protection, preventing cavities.
If the above two factors of popularity of the Ceylon tea – the gustatory qualities and benefits– have historically formed substantiation, then the third factor of popularity – the comfort of tea making– is the essence of the modern era. Getting real pleasure from the flavor and aroma of the Ceylon tea any time and any place having minimal attributes: hot water and bag tea, to date, is widespread throughout the world. Sri Lanka is one of the largest producers of bag tea of combined grades of the finest quality. GOLD CEYLON bag tea meets very distinctive needs of its regular customers with a wide assortment of the Ceylon blended black and green tea, including flavored, fruit and mixed tea with addition of flowers and herbs. The economic effect of the widespread popularity of the Ceylon tea imitates the market behavior regularly exceeding demand over supply. To date the proportion of the aggregate demand of the Ceylon tea on the world market almost twice as much exceeds the supply, at that the selling price per unit of product is not low. As a comparison, in India the demand is slightly lagging behind the offer having the price of the tea approximately equal to the Ceylon tea, and in China, on the contrary, a considerable excess of supply over demand, at that the price of the tea is much lower than the price of the Ceylon tea. Production of the Ceylon tea began to develop rapidly since 1870 and is going on to the present day. In 1875 the extent of tea plantations amounted to 400 hectares, in 1,900 it was increased up to 120,000 ha. Now the plantations cover about 220,000 hectares in the highland and Southern plain areas of the country. Nowadays Sri Lanka is the third world’s exporter of tea. Sri Lanka supplies tea to more than 150 countries around the world. This small size country (compared to the "tea giants" China and India) produces annually more than 305 million kg of various tea, representing 10% of the world tea production.
3.VARIETIES OF CEYLON TEA
As the production of tea worldwide is a universal process, despite the difference in volumes, quality of raw materials, and contains the standard tea leaf processing technology for all the tea producers, the single integrated approach is taken as the basis of the modern classification of teas. Pegging of grades and characteristics of the Ceylon tea to the classification is made by the following basic criteria: By origin;
By the type of the tea plant;
By the type of tea leaves;
By fermentation rate;
By the method of mechanical processing;
By additives in tea. BY ORIGIN
Manufacturer is Sri Lanka. Tea production is presented on the global market under the brand name "Ceylon tea". Soil and climatic characteristics of the region divide the Ceylon tea into three main categories: Highland. Altitude above the sea level is more than 1200 m. The total share volume is 27%. Plantations: Nuwara Eliya, Uda Pussellava, Dimbula, Uva;
Mid-highland. Altitude above the sea level is600-1200 m. The total share volume is19%. Plantations: Kandy;
Plain. Altitude above the sea level is up to 600 m. The total share volume is54%.Plantations: Ruhuna, Sabaragamuwa; Sri Lanka has seven principal agro climatic zones (plantations) suitable for growing tea. The tea grown in each of these agro-climatic zones has its distinctive shades of flavor, aroma, extract strength and color. The tea from highland plantations of the Southern part of the island as the best quality (the altitude above the sea level is 2000m and higher). The medium quality tea is collected from the other plantations. By the type of tea plant Only the Assamese tea plant is cultivated at Ceylon. By the type of tea leaves Three main groups of the Ceylon tea are distinguished by the type of tea leaves, at that the black tea is classified by all the three categories and the green tea only by the first two ones: High-quality whole leaf tea (whole leaves)
Medium-quality broken tea (broken leaves, chopped)
Low-quality tea (fine cut leaves, fannings and tea dust) High-quality whole leaf tea is the tea of whole young leaves, unexpanded or half-expanded buds (tips) and different varieties of their combinations. This is the best world’s Ceylon tea. The quality category of this tea is the highest. Medium-quality tea is the tea made of broken leaves obtained as production wastes of the whole leaf tea, or especially fine cut, chopped leaves. Tea made of broken leaves is distinctive with a higher extract content than the whole leaf tea, and the infusion is more strong and harsh, but the worse aroma and less subtle flavor. However, the quality category of this tea is the highest or medium. Low-quality tea is the tea made of especially fine cut leaves, as well as of tea production wastes, resultant when sorting or screening. The quality category of the low-quality tea is at least medium. By fermentation rate Fermentation orenzymatic oxidation is a complex biochemical process, which is the oxidation of the tea leaf cellular fluid under influence of temperature, humidity, light, oxygen, enzymes and time. The appearance, aroma, infusion flavor and other tea characteristics depend on the fermentation rate. Fermentation is the integral part of the tea leaves processing and takes a strictly definite place in the chain of successive technological operations: leaf drying at the temperature of32-40°Cwithin4-8 hours, when the tea leaf loses some moisture and softens
Repeated twisting by hand or on the rollers, when a portion of juice is oozed
Enzymatic oxidation often called fermentation, allowing the starch contained in a leave to segregate into sugar, chlorophyll in to tannins
Dryingat temperature of90-95°Cforblack tea and 105°Cforgreen tea, stop in goxidationand decreasing tea moisture down to3-5%
Fine cutting (except for whole leaf tea)
Separation by the tea size
Possible additional processing and additives In accordance with the classification of tea by the fermentation rate five types of tea shall be determined: white, green, yellow, red and black. However, the Ceylon tea is divided only into two types:
By the method of mechanical processing The Ceylon tea has only 3 basic types (from the standard variety) Loose
Bagged Loose tea is the most widespread, traditional. Such tea is a large number of separate, unrelated and size sorted tea pieces. Only whole tea leaves are used as a raw material.
Granulated tea is the quick-brewed tea, processed using the CTC technology. Broken or specially cut leaves are used as raw materials (non-whole leaves). Most of the factories producing this type are located in mid-highland and plain areas. Dried leaves are thinned and crushed getting deep brown color with a strong flavor. Bagged tea is the tea placed in disposable bags from filter paper, fine polymeric or metal mesh. Crushed tea leaves are used as a raw material (fannings, dust) of mixed Ceylon teas of the highest and medium quality, as well as fine granulated tea. By additives in tea Flavored tea: with aromatic additives and essential oils
Fruit tea: with addition of dried berries and fruits
Various mixtures and variations with addition of flowers and herbs Marking of the Ceylon tea
The international marking system of finished tea products has been adopted in the modern tea industry. The marking indicates the main characteristics of tea raw materials. Tea raw materials for tea production are as follows: whole leaves distinguished by the crumple degree, broken and crushed leaves, unexpanded and half-expanded buds and, the most important, different variations of their combinations, for example, “two leaves and a half-expanded bud”. Tea leaves are distinguished by the type of a tea plant and the plantation location. The marking system of tea has a special abbreviation that tea producers stamp on the finished product. The basic abbreviation of the finished tea type means the following T.(Tippy) is the highest quality tea, produced from unexpanded leaf buds, providing a delicate flavor and aroma.
F.(Flowery) is the highest quality tea from the leaves located around tips and half-expanded tips. Owing to the tips tea has a strong flavor.
P.(Pekoe) is the whole leaf tea, loose, from more coarse leaves.
O.(Orange) is the whole leaf tea, from young curled leaves.
S.(Sushong) is the whole leaf tea, from lower leaves. Typically, the Ceylon tea is not marked.
B.(Broken) is the tea from chopped and fine cut leaves.
S.(Special) is the selected tea, from upper leaves, exclusive.
G.(Golden)is the highest quality tea, from three upper leaves and tips, from the best “golden“ teas. Tea blends of the mentioned teas are marked in a very easy way, for example: OP-(Orange Pekoe) is a blend of the Orange and Pekoe tea.
Tea blends of broken (cut) leaves are marked by adding the letter B (Broken) at the beginning: BOP means (Broken Orange Pekoe).
Tea blends of crushed teas are marked by adding letter F (FININGS) at the end of the basic abbreviation: BOPF—(Broken Orange Pekoe Finings). Granulated tea is marked in two ways: ORTODOX or CLASSIC, during production of which the manual curling method was used with minimum damages to the tea leaves, and CTC, during production of which CTC (Cut, tear & curl) machining technologies were used. Tea producers take decisions independently to apply certain types of markings for their tea products. For example, the whole leaf tea sometimes is marked as WHOLELEAF, large leaf tea as BIGLEAF, the tea unblended with other teas of one sort as PURE, tea blends as BLENDED, bagged tea of one type as PUREFINNINGS etc...
4. THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE BLACK AND GREEN TEA
Black and green teas are produced from one plant. However, herewith there are significant differences in the assessment criteria of the main characteristics of these two teas:
Differences in the processing method of tea leaves The main difference of the black tea from the green tea is in the processing method of tea leaves. The green tea is not subject to enzymatic oxidation, or is to be oxidized by not more than 12%. The black tea is the highly oxidized tea (80%). The enzymatic oxidation or fermentation is the technical processing of tea that gives the drink a certain color and flavor. Differences in quality of raw materials
Whole tea leaves, broken (or specially cut) leaves and fannings are used for production of the black tea. For production of the green tea only whole tealeaves and broken (or specially cut) leaves are used. Differences in flavor, color, aroma
The black tea has a deep color, astringency, pleasant flavor, slightly sweet, sometimes with honey shades, and accentuated aroma. The green tea has a non-saturated color and bitter is a flavor, having a slight smell of fresh-dried hay or citrus petals. Differences in the rate of tea consumption
Tea is a drink used all over the world. The black tea is approximately 72% of the total tea consumption in the world, while the green tea is about 28%. Differences in the content of healthy substances
The black tea is subject to a longer fermentation, during which it is getting black and loses most of the healthy substances. The green tea is not subject to fermentation (or fermentation is short-term), but the important thing is that it is subject to thermal conditioning with steam, preserving the green color of the leaves. For that reason the vitamin composition and number of other healthy components in the green tea are much higher than in the black tea. Differences in degree of the body purification from heavy metals and radiation
The green tea helps purifying the body from toxins, to the greater extent than the black tea, acts as an absorbent: cleans the stomach and intestinal tract, and helps cleansing the kidneys. The green tea is considered a more effective means against radiation sickness than the black tea, neutralizes the adverse effects of radiation from the household appliances: computer monitors and TV screens. The green tea, due to the tannin contained in it, promotes excretion of heavy metals from the body; the black tea herein is inefficient Differences in reducing the risk of certain diseases
The black tea helps reducing the level of the hormone responsible for stress by 50%. The black tea is more effective than the green tea, when reducing the risk of the cardiovascular disease progression. Vitamins B, vitamins P and PP contained in the black tea increase the vascular and capillary tone, so the black tea is recommended for people suffering from hypotension. The black tea relieves stomach cramps, stops nausea; in this case the green tea is not recommended. Unlike the green tea, the black tea can be used to control the sugar level in the blood with patients having diabetes.
The green tea is more effective than the black tea, when reducing the cancer risk, also it helps reducing the obesity risk, aging. Differences in the chemical composition of tea the chemical composition of the green and black tea is almost identical with respect to the list of elements contained in it. However, the quantitative value of the individual items differentiates them significantly. As of today up to 300 various biologically active substances have been identified in the tea that affect many biochemical and physiological properties of the organism. The comparative characteristic of the green and the black tea by the most important substances of the chemical composition is determined by the equivalent quality of raw materials, what enables to assess objectively the both teas by its healthy properties. The comparative characteristics is based on the criterion of preserving healthy substances in the tea, since the consumers are interested in tea infusion, but not its dry mixture, i.e. the degree of preservation of vitamins, minerals and other healthy tea components in a hot water solution. There are two main different categories of substances of the tea chemical composition: soluble (extractive) substances and water insoluble substances.
Content of extractive substances in water in the finished green tea is 40-58%, and in the black tea 30-45%.The degree of preservation of healthy tea substances in the finished tea drink isa very important characteristic for the consumer. Soluble (extractive) substances are divided by the specific gravity into several main groups Tannins (20%) effect the bitterness and astringency due to contained tannin, and are antioxidants due to contained catechine. In the green tea tannins are preserved almost completely, and in the black tea half as much due to fermentation. Content of the tannin in the green tea is 1.5 times as much than in the black tea, and catechine4-5 times as much than in the black tea. Vitamins (9.98%).The tea contains the full list of required vitamins: A, C, B1, B2, PP (B3),E,F, K,U, P (flavonoids),B5, etc. In the green tea vitamins, in the aggregate, are preserved completely, and in the black tea they are less than twice as little. Taking into account individual types of vitamins, this ratio is much higher: the vitamin C content in the green tea is 10 times as much, than in the black tea; the ratio of vitamin E is a little less, which delays aging of cells and has a rejuvenating effect, on vitamin B as well that is essential for normal liver and endocrine glands performance. And, on the contrary, vitamin P, that helps strengthening the blood vessels and capillaries walls, is in greater content in the black tea than in the green tea. Aminoacids (7%) protect the nervous system against the stress, enhance mental endurance, and actively helps recovering the exhausted nervous system mainly due to the glutamic acid that is extremely important for the life activity of the human body. Amino acids also give the tea a sweet floral flavor. The green tea contains almost half as much amino acids as in the black tea. Alkaloids (4%) are the most important representative of this group, caffeine which has a stimulating effect on the nervous and blood-vascular system. Namely, it increases performance efficiency, improves the mood, eliminates drowsiness and makes a sense of energy surge. The green tea contains caffeine 1.5 times as much, than in the black tea. However, its effect on the body is more relaxed due to the influence of the tea tannin Mineral substances (4%) effect the activity of the brain, cardiac muscle, condition of the bones, teeth, nails and hair. The largest specific gravity in the structure of mineral substances is possessed by potassium, calcium, magnesium and iron, a little less manganese, zinc, copper, nickel, although the latter are digested better by the organism. When brewing tea, the number of remaining mineral substances in the green tea are much more than in the black tea Effects of the mineral substances contained in the tea on the body can hardly be overestimated, for example, potassium helps for matingprothrombin in the liver that is required to maintain the normal blood coagulability; fluorine prevents destruction of the tooth enamel; iodine has a good influence on the thyroid gland and endocrine system; zinc is a very important component in fetal development and also has an anticarcinogenic means, etc. Sugar (3%) has a positive effect of this water well-dissolved component on the body that is well known. It should only be noted that its content in the black tea considerably exceeds the content in the green tea Essential oils (0.02%) provide tea with a unique aroma saturated with scents of roses, honey, vanilla, citrus, lilac, and cinnamon. Content of the essential oils in the black tea is much more than in the green tea Water insolublesubstances in the tea contain the following components among the most important components by influence on the body, including Proteins (16%) are the essential component of tea leaves, is the main material to build cells for the synthesis of enzymes, hormones, hemoglobin, etc. The nutritional value of the tea protein is equal to legume crops. The tea leaf contains two types of proteins: glutelinssoluble in alkaliesand albumins soluble in water. Content of albumins, as a result of the leaf processing, exceeds the content of glutelins approximately by 10%. The finished green tea contains more albumins, and the black tea mainly contains glutelins. Therefore, the green tea is more rich in proteins as compared to the black tea. Fibre (26%) helps decreasing the blood cholesterol level, normalizes the blood sugar level and promotes the excretion of salts of heavy metals from the body. The content of this component in the green tea is significantly more than in the black tea Fats (8%). Among them the most valuable to the human body are the phosphoric fat, sugar oils, lipids, and saccharides. The energy value (calories) of the black tea almost twice as much exceeds that of the green tea Starch (0.5%).The starch content in the green tea is much higher than its content in the black tea. Depending on the tea, it is even recommended to pour out the first portion of the green tea drink due to the large starch concentration that gives the tea a muddy shade. The important healthy starch property is its ability to hydrolysis and conversion to the quick-dissolving glucose Chlorophyll-pigments (1.5%) stimulate the hematopoietic system, improve immunity, hemoglobin in the blood, and help healing wounds and ulcers. Content of chlorophyll-pigments in the green tea unambiguously exceeds their content in the black tea, because the green tea is closer in properties to the tea leaf Differences in the method of making the tea drink
Health-giving effects achieved, when having the black and the green tea are comparable, both of them help the health promotion and life activity of the body. But it should be remembered that these properties can be possessed only by the freshest and properly made drink. There are some differences in the method of making the black and green tea. The maximum quantity of dry tea: 1 teaspoon of the black tea and 0.5-1 teaspoon of the green tea for150-200 ml of water. Temperature of brewing water: for the black tea – cool down the boiling water to 90-95 degrees, for the green tea –bring water to boiling and cool down to 75-80 degrees.
The brewing method: the black tea is brewed in two steps: fill in one third of the teapot with water and wait 2 minutes, add the water to 2/3 of the teapot and infuse until it is ready. The green tea is brewed in three steps: fill in one third of the teapot with water and wait 2 minutes, add the water to the half of the teapot and wait 2minutes, add the water to 2/3 pot and infuse. Total time of tea infusion: the black tea – 4-5 minutes, the green tea – 8-10 minutes Reuse of the brew: the black tea is not recommended to brew again. The green tea can be brewed up to 2-3 times. Frequency of tea consumption per day: the black tea – maximum 4-5 cups a day, the green tea – maximum3-4 cups a day. The water should be fresh, soft and purified for making both the green and the black tea. A porcelain, glass or ceramic tea pot can be used for brewing. Enjoy black tea from one brewing for maximum 15 minutes.30 minutes after brewing the black tea shall not be used for drinking, as in the tea left for a long time the number of purine compounds harmful for the cardiovascular system increases. For the green tea this period is longer, especially as one brew of the green tea can be re-used, which is absolutely inacceptable for the black tea. The first brew of some green teas with a strong bitterness is recommended to pour outright after filling with hot water to soften the bitterness. Compliance with all the simple rules of tea making will allow not only enjoying a lovely drink, but also getting great benefits for the body.
5. CULTURE OF TEA DRINKING IN DIFFERENT COUNTRIES
For many centuries’ people have improved traditions of making and having tea. Because of the influence of various historical, social and religious factors the tea party culture of different nations all over the world has significant differences. Tea ceremony in China
Since the Ming dynasty reign (1268-1644) a treatise on tea and tea party was issued that established a special tea drinking ritual which is strictly followed even in China nowadays. The tea brewing method is called Gung Fu Cha, translate dashiest tea mastership, and which is based on the idea of respect to the tea itself. A great importance is attached to the form of tea leaves, flavor, aroma and color of the infusion. During the ceremony the tea is poured into miniature porcelain cups and is presented first to a senior relative or senior colleague or anyone in sign of respect, peace and forgiveness. The Chinese tea ceremony happens in a pleasant, relaxed environment – exquisite interior design, quiet music and laid-back conversation The tradition of tea drinking in India
The original inhabitants of India have known the invigorating and aromatic drink for very long, since 750-500 B.C. In the Eastern and Northern India the tea plant had grown, had been cultivated and consumed for thousands of years, mainly for medical purposes. However, the tradition of tea parties was revived in India only since the 19thcentury, during the English colonial period. The most popular drink is Masala-Cha. This is a strong black tea with sugar, boiled milk and spices: cinnamon, ginger, nutmeg, cloves, cardamom, pepper, etc.; herewith sugar and spices are added into the water before boiling. The brewing dosage is 1.5-2 table spoons per cup; tea is brewed in one step, i.e. the tea pot is filled with water completely. Masala-Cha is consumed in the morning and in the afternoon; and it is offered to all guests in the house. Tea can beaded by a variety of sweets Frozen tea is also popular in India. 3 teaspoons are brewed in 300-350 ml of water, cooled down, a glass of 0.5 liter volume is filled with the infusion, ice is added, as well as lemon juice and sugar Nowadays in any city of the country, everywhere small market stalls with tea dealers can be found. A large metallic jar is on the counter, in which tea can indefinitely remain hot that can gather great connoisseurs of this amazing tea. The ubiquitous tea party becomes the center of public life, where not only the tea is enjoyed, but also the latest news is shared, deals are discussed and all problems are solved Tea ceremony in Japan
Tea was imported to Japan from the mainland since 7-8th centuries A.D. The Japanese tea party ritual is extremely complicated and improved. There is a special screenplay and special utensils and even the space: very often the ceremony takes place in the so-called tea house, detached in the garden having the size of 8 m². The door is very low and narrow to make the proud man bow and the Samurai leave his sword behind the door It is similar to a cult activity and has philosophical and aesthetic nature. Ritual flat green tea is ground in to a very fine powder, put into a ceramic cup using a special wooden spoon, filled with hot water and shake up with a bamboo whisk converting to a dense foamy mass. The master of ceremony gives the cup to the guest of honor and the latter, taking 3 sips, passes the cup circle-wise. The tea flavor is very harsh, because the concentration is 100-200 grams of the tea brew for 500 g of water. Obviously, in Japan not every tea party is a ceremony. The ceremony is designated for very special events in the family and in the country. For each event there is its own kind of tea ceremony, among of which there are six traditional tea ceremonies: night, sunrise, morning, afternoon, evening, and special. The tradition of tea drinking in England for the first time tea came to England from France in1636and very quickly became popular first among the aristocracy and then in wide layers of society. The traditional English large tea party requires strict adherence to etiquette and appropriate tea attributes. The table is usually covered with a white table cloth, there should be a small vase with fresh flowers on the table. White napkins, fabric or paper ones to suit the color of the tablecloth. A tea set and tableware, one big teapot for all with a fabric cover or small individual teapots, and a jug with boiling water, milk jug with milk or cream, tea strainer on a stand, sugar bowl with white and brown refined sugar. Guests can choose from several grades, among which the Earl Grey is essential. However, the prestige for the owner is to offer his own blend to the guests. The tea is added with the traditional English bakery The English have tea three times a day: in the morning, during a lunch and at five o’clock. As before, the worldwide famous “tea” terminology is widely used: “high tea” is the tea that they have regularly and “low tea” is a special tea ceremony. The very famous “five-o-clock tea” is the afternoon tea with snacks The tradition of tea drinking in Russia
The history of tea in Russia began in 1638. Since then tea is the most popular drink in the country. Invitation for having tea means first of all communication, rather than a demonstration of tea grades, interior and any tea attributes Tea can be served at the end of the meal, as a dessert, along with pastries and confectionery, as well as when having the meal. Unlike the English tradition to have tea only at the strictly specified time, in Russia having tea is possible at any time of the day, with and without reasons – "Russians do not have tea, only when they sleep". In Russia black tea is mostly favored, consumption of green and other teas is not more than a few percent. The historical tradition of tea making has been kept until today: a concentrated brew is made in a small porcelain pot that is diluted with boiled water from a large kettle or samovar. Sometimes after a single pouring out the brew is refilled with boiling water and infused, but not more than once. Depending on individual preferences, sugar, lemon, honey, jam, milk or cream, as well as balm, cognacorrum is added into a cup In festive or special tea parties the etiquette is adhered to, that was established long time ago in the Russian aristocratic societies and very similar to the English etiquette